대한언어학회 전자저널

대한언어학회

27 권 1 호 ( 2019 년 3 월)

Intensification of Affirmativity: Definitely as a Discourse Marker in Spoken Conversation

Jungyull Lee (Chodang University)

Pages : 63-80

DOI : https://doi.org/10.24303/lakdoi.2019.27.1.63

PDF보기

리스트

Abstract

Lee, Jungyull. (2019). Intensification of Affirmativity: Definitely as a discourse marker in spoken conversation. The Linguistic Association of Korea Journal, 27(1), 63-80. From a pragmatic-analytic perspective, this study examines how definitely as a discourse marker (DM) functions in spoken conversation. Three corpora, namely the British National Corpus (BNC), the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE), and the Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English (SBC) are used to investigate the multifarious pragmatic functions of definitely between interlocutors. It is practicable to use definitely as a DM in pre-front field and it frequently occurs in everyday language use. In light of the three corpora with respect to the DM definitely introduced in this study, there may be divergent types of definitely that occur in spoken conversation. Based on my dataset, definitely exhibits four types of pre-front use. For instance, definitely appears by itself and it also occurs with specific discourse particles such as oh, yeah, and yes and with negators such as no and not. Lastly, its repetitive pre-front use is also found. The analysis from a pragmatic perspective in regard to definitely as a DM proposes that definitely can play a great variety of pragmatic functions such as those of acting as a pre-closing device, or devices to express and solicit approval, consensus, eagerness, stimulation, gratification, floor-holding, topic-shift, intimacy, and bridging between interlocutors in spoken conversation. From perspectives of semantic and pragmatic analysis, definitely has an affirmative semantic connotation and it could strongly serve as an affirmative conversational response device.

Keywords

# definitely # corpora # pre-front use # discourse marker (DM) # pragmatic function # affirmative conversational response device

References

  • Brinton, L. J. (1996). Pragmatic markers in English. Grammaticalization and discourse functions. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Du Bois, J. W., Chafe, W. L., Meyer, C., Thompson, S. A., Englebretson, R., & Martey, N. (2000-2005). Santa Barbara corpus of spoken American English. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium.
  • Fries, C. C. (1952). The structure of English. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
  • Gardner, R. (1997). The listener and minimal responses in conversational interaction. Prospect, 12, 12-32.
  • Gardner, R. (1998). Between speaking and listening: The vocalization of understandings. Applied Linguistics, 19, 204-224.
  • Heritage, J. (2002). Oh-prefaced responses to assessments: A method of modifying agreement/disagreement. In C. E. Ford, B. A. Fox, & S. A. Thompson (Eds.), The language of turn and sequence (pp. 196-224). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hopper, P. (1987). Emergent grammar. Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 13, 139-157.
  • Hoye, L. (1997). Adverbs and modality in English. London: Longman.
  • Jucker, A., & Ziv, Y. (1998). Discourse markers: Descriptions and theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Leech, G., Rayson, P., & Wilson, A. (2001). Word frequencies in written and spoken English. London: Longman.
  • McCarthy, M. (2002). Good listenership made plain: British and American non-minimal response tokens in everyday conversation. In R. Reppen, S. M. Fitzmaurice, & D. Biber (Eds.), Using corpora to explore linguistic variation (pp. 49-71). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Pomerantz, A. (1984). Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments: Some features of preferred/dispreferred turn shapes. In J. Maxwell Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action (pp. 57-101). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.
  • Rundell, M. (2002). Macmillan English dictionary for advanced learners. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Schegloff, E. A. (1982). Discourse as an interactional achievement: Some uses of ʻuh huhʼ and other things that come between sentences. In D. Tannen (Ed.), Analyzing discourse: Text and talk (pp. 71-93). Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
  • Schiffrin, D. (1987). Discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Simon-Vandenbergen, A. M., & Aijmer, K. (2007). The semantic field of modal certainty: A corpus-based study of English adverbs. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Simpson, R. C., Briggs, S. L., Ovens, J., & Swales, J. M. (2002). The Michigan corpus of academic spoken English. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan.
  • Sinclair, J. (2001). Collins COBUILD English language dictionary for advanced learners. London: Harper Collins.
  • Suh, K.-H. (2011). The social meanings of discourse markers in Valspeak: Like and totally. Journal of British and American Studies, 25, 157-186.
  • Summers, D. (1995). Longman dictionary of contemporary English. Harlow: Longman.
  • Yngve, V. (1970). On getting a word in edgewise. In Papers from the 6th Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago, IL.